The spider monkey (Ateles spp.) is one of the four genera of non-human primates of the Neotropics that is widely distributed in the tropical and deciduous forests of South and Central America. It is found from sea level to 1,800 meters above sea level (Guzmán Serrano et al., 2008; Reid, 2009).
The species of the Ateles genus belong to the Atelinae subfamily, which is characterized by including arboreal primates with long limbs and great agility, weighing between 8 and 9 kilos, and having a long prehensile tail that they use to support their body while they feed. or as additional support during locomotion (Di Fiore and Campbell, 2007).
Depending on the species, its body measures from 35 to 75 cm in length, and the prehensile tail from 60 to 92 cm.
Scientific name of the Spider Monkey
They belong to the family Atelidae, the superfamily Ceboidea, the infraorder Platyrrhine, the suborder Anthropoidea, and the order Primates (Bruner and Cucina, 2005).
- Class: Mammalia
- Family: Atelidae
- Genre: Ateles
- Species: Ateles geoffroyi
Common names: Spider monkey, long-handed monkey, and white-bellied monkey
The genus Ateles from the Greek “incomplete”, is an allusion to the fact that the species that make up this genus lack a thumb on their front extremities, and the specific epithet fuscicepscomes from the Latin terms fuscusand ceps“dark head” (Tirira, 2004 ).
Characteristics of the Ateles.
It is a species of wild primate that stands out among the largest Neotropical primates, measuring between 35 and 45 cm in height and its tail can reach 85 cm (Ramos, 2006). However, they have a finer appearance than other monkeys.
The body is thick with thin and very long limbs, its head is relatively small and it has a prehensile tail whose end is bare at the bottom and which they use as a fifth limb to move agilely among the trees, they have four fingers and no thumb.
Adult animalscan weigh up to 9 or 10 kg (Guzmán Serrano et al., 2008; Reid, 2009).
Most individuals have pinkish skin around the eyes and mouth, the color of the different species varies from light brown to black. On the back it has a dark coloration, in the abdominal region it has a lighter color so it is called white-bellied monkey, in addition to presenting a kind of tuft on the top of the head (Serio-Silva et al., 2006) .
Males and females are about the same size, males lack a beard, and females can be distinguished by their particularly long, pendulum-shaped clitoris, while the genitalia of males are usually hidden (Van Roosmalen and Klein, 1998; Guzmán Serrano et al., 2008; Reid, 2009).
Where does the Spider Monkey live?
They typically inhabit tropical forests and jungles from southeastern Mexico to the south of the Amazon River basin(Morales, 2003). In terrains of various elevations, which can be from sea level to 2,500 meters or a little more above sea level.
The spider monkey prefers undisturbed tropical forests and can be found in riparian vegetation although it is mostly seen in the upper levels of the forest (Van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988).
Of the four species recognized for the genus Ateles, only the black-handed spider monkey (A. geoffroyi) inhabits the humid tropical forests of Mexico (Collins, 2008).
Feeding of the Ateles.
It is a species of herbivorous and frugivorous primate (Russo et al., 2005). Their diet is based on the consumption of fleshy fruits, which constitute about 80-90% of their daily diet, the rest is provided by leaves (Di Fiore and Campbell, 2007); but, they can consume nuts, birdeggs, insects, spiders, tree bark and honey.
It is important to mention that spider monkeys play a vital role in maintaining diversity in their habitat as seed dispersers, thanks to their consumption of fruits they return the seeds to the soil when they are excreted, after which they can germinate (Link et al. DiFiore, 2005).
Spider Monkey Reproduction
They reach their sexual maturity at 4 or 5 years of age. They can live up to 20 years. The females have a fairly large clitoris, which can make it difficult to distinguish them from the males. However, males have no problem recognizing them, and after courtship they choose a mate from the group.
Gestation comprises a period between 226 and 232 days, and later the delivery of a single calf occurs. The mother is responsible for the care of her little one, whom she feeds with breast milk, for a period of 18 to 20 months in captivity, while in free life it is 23 to 36 months, since there is a very close relationship between mothers. and children and practically separate until the year of age (Chapman and Chapman, 1990). The interval between births is approximately 3 to 4 years.
Baby Spider Monkey.
They are inhabitants of the forest canopy and live in social groups (Muñoz et al., 2006; Di Fiore and Campbell, 2007). It is known that these primates enjoy heights and are known for their lifestyle where they prefer to carry out activities in the trees, as their limbs help them to balance between branches and vines more easily (Cambpell et al., 2005).
They are characterized by a very varied social structure, since within the group in which they live there are several males and several females, contrary to other primates where only one male can exist (Ahumada, 1992).
The spider monkey community forms temporary aggregates of different sizes and composition throughout the day; a spider monkey changes subgroup several times during the day (Ramos, 2006).
Males tend to interact more with each other and show greater aggressiveness towards females, and females tend to be more solitary and less active than males within the group (Ferdigan and Baxter, 1984).
This species also presents behavioral differences between females with and without young that are based on the patterns of similar behaviors directed from mothers to children, females without young are more solitary than those that are mothers, they are more active and present more foraging behaviors, locomotion, vocalization, play, and branch sniffing (Fedigan and Baxter, 1984).
Species conservation status
Spider monkeys are one of the neotropical mammals most vulnerable to habitat degradation and fragmentation, as well as to hunting (Michalski and Peres, 2005).
Deforestationprocesses to facilitate the production of exportable products such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, among others, coupled with uncontrollable urbanization, make the forest shrink every day.
This causes the displacement of these animals to unsuitable places, lacking trees of the desired height for spider monkeys.
Is the Spider Monkey in danger of extinction?
According to the above, all the species of this genus have been categorized as endangered (EN) or critically endangered (CR) (Cuarón et al. 2008; Dirzo et al., 2013).
Likewise, the recovery of their populations is difficult due to the intrinsic characteristics of the Ateles genus, such as a relatively low reproductive rate with an interval between births of 3 to 4 years (Shimoka et al., 2008, Tirira, 2004).
Biólogo – Universidad de Oriente – núcleo de Sucre. Venezuela (2013). Profesora de Biología hasta el 2018 de la Universidad de Oriente – núcleo Bolivar. Certificada en gestión de calidad e inocuidad alimentaria ISO 22000 y gestión de la calidad en laboratorios ISO 17025. Actualmente vive en Ecuador. Senescyt Nro. 8622122546
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